before

before | after + VERBing

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 61 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: non-finite subordinate clause with ‘before’ and ‘after’ + ‘-ing’, before or after a main clause, to refer to time. Another way to say this is: ‘after + gerund’ or ‘before + gerund’ Also, note that this point will clash with …

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LINKING ADVERBS / SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Point 19 in A2 ADVERBS as modifiers is defined as: LINKING limited range of adverbs (‘also’, ‘so’, ‘however’) to show a relationship between two clauses or sentences. The EGP examples: I_PPIS1 also_RR bought_VVD ,_, so_CS I_PPIS1 decided_VVD However_RR ,_, the_AT clothes_NN2 were_VBDR cheap_JJ ._. Point in 2 A2 DISCOURSE MARKERS is: ‘so‘ to summarise, usually …

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simple prepositions (range)

When it comes to single word grammar points such as single-word prepositions, the English Vocabulary Profile is much better at explaining range than the English Grammar Profile.  For that reason, this post will only cover the prepositions appearing in the EGP examples. A1 is defined: prepositional phrases with a preposition and a noun phrase. limited …

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NEVER BEFORE + perfect inversion

‘never + inversion‘ is B2 with or without past perfect.  The following examples use present perfect simple + inversion: Never before has man possessed so much power. listen Never before have so many people risen so far so fast, on so many different dimensions. listen Here’s an example with past perfect inversion without ‘before’: Never had I felt such an incomprehensible emptiness within myself. listen In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 68 in  PAST is defined as: past perfect …

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conjunction + past simple

In the English Grammar Profile, there are two points that overlap.  B2 point 55 is defined as: PAST simple after ‘if’ as a politeness structure, especially in letters and emails. B2 point 72 is defined as: the past simple with a range of subordinating conjunctions, including ‘as soon as’, ‘before’, ‘if’, ‘once’, ‘since’, ‘so’, ‘until’, …

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