and

phrase ellipsis

Here’s a student example of verb phrase ellipsis: You need to study hard to pass the test unless you don’t want to. PELIC Arabic female level 4 grammar class Although there are a number of grammar points in the English Grammar Profile to do with Ellipsis, there are none that cover the ellipsis of phrases before or after the ‘TO’ infinitive.  Therefore, we turn to Pearson’s GSE …

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ordering past events

Point 35 in the category of PAST is defined: past simple to order sequences of events in the past, in the context of narratives. PELIC STUDENT EXAMPLE: I looked at the sheet and thought about it and then I continued following my sheet. When I noticed that I should have arrived, I called my brother and he told me that I had the wrong directions. Arabic male, level 5 grammar class. Two of the EGP examples use ‘and then’ while one only uses ‘and’ to connect past …

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the best + PRONOUN + can | could

Here are 2 examples of post-modifying a superlative adverb phrase with a clause containing an ellipted modal verb: I do the best I can with what I have. I go about my business, make money, help society the best I can and try to promote free trade in this world. listen   You know, I did the best I could with what I had. listen C1 English Grammar Profile point 118 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: ‘the best’ as a superlative adverb + pronoun + ellipted ‘can’ or ‘could’. …

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comparative AND comparative

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 47 in Adjectives is defined as: ‘and’ to repeat a comparative adjective to indicate change over time, usually after ‘become’ or ‘get’ However, the English Vocabulary Profile lists ‘worse and worse‘ at B2  used to emphasize how unpleasant, difficult, severe, etc. something is becoming A search in iWeb corpus: _V …

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10 ways ‘FAR’ is used in English grammar.

Here are 10 ways ‘far’ is used ranked by order of frequency: 1. A2 general adverb *Numbers on the right are the frequency in iWeb corpus: (RR) 1578722 ‘far‘ means ‘at, to or from a great distance in space or time‘  For example: Is it far away? I don’t live far from here. Thailand is not far from Vietnam. 2. B1 phrase ‘so far‘ means ‘until now‘ So far …

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OVER

We use claws7 tagging software to analyze the part of speech of ‘over’.  Claws7 is used in iWeb corpus so it is easy to also look for examples. I go_VV0 over_RP the_AT bridge_NN1 ._. (if lexical verb before then ‘over’ is a particle, regardless if followed by a noun or prepositional phrase) I go_VV0 over_RP …

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TIME (complex adverbial phrases)

1 TIME (NNT1) 24212119 (noun) 2 TIME (RR42) 192513 (from time to time) B2 adverbial phrase Maybe it would’ve done you some good to have some questions from time to time. listen 3 TIME (VV0%) 101432 9 TIME (VVI) 9981 (verb) 4 TIME (RT43) 37727 (For the time being) 5 TIME (RR31) 21289 (time and again)

BY phrases

In this post we explore the ways ‘by’ is tagged in large corpora such as iWeb and NOW. 1 BY (II) is clearly most commonly found to be a simple preposition. What we think happened,  but we don’t know for sure,  one killed the other,  either on purpose or by accident. And then took his own life, drowned himself. Cassandra’s Dream 2 BY (II31) (complex prepositional phrase) 1 BY WAY OF 81460 C1 Second, the other sentences which make up the body of the paragraph should support the topic sentence  …

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TO

The word ‘to’ is most often before an infinitive or it is a simple preposition.  A search in iWeb corpus for frequency data related to part of speech: 1 TO (TO) 240771826 infinitive marker _TO * * * * 1 TO BE ONE OF THE 87871 Everyone, this is our dear friend, Brian Bloom  who also happens to be one of the most talented young writers. listen to this C1 example …

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adverbial phrases with ‘AND’

The second most common word in English is ‘AND’  which is usually a conjunction.  It’s also used in complex adverbial phrases: and so on (A2 in the English Vocabulary Profile EVP) I need you to help me with my bags and so on. listen Also, note that ‘and so forth‘ is not listed in the EVP, but is listed in OXFORD at B1: I‘ve had ample opportunity to observe Browning and adopt his physical presence, study his mannerisms, and so …

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Both and

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 17 in CONJUNCTIONS/coordinating is defined as: ‘BOTH AND’ to combine phrases and clauses, often for emphasis. For example: You come up with this framework to guide the way through both the story and the data. Listen   In the iWeb corpus we can run up to 4 wildcards with different combinations: ‘both * * and * *’   1 BOTH MEN AND WOMEN …

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And yet

In the English Grammar Profile ‘and yet’ or ‘yet’ is listed at C2 Point 24 in CONJUNCTIONS “CONCESSIVE to combine sentences, often unexpected” C1 Point 20 in CONJUNCTIONS coordinating CONCESSIVE ‘(and) yet’ to combine phrases and clauses to introduce a contrast, often unexpected. In the English Vocabulary Profile, ‘yet’ as a conjunction is listed as: …

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