after

time and sequencing adverbs

The adverb ‘now’ plays a crucial role in indicating the timing of events. It signifies the present moment and its immediate relevance. For instance, in the sentence “A boss like that? Now I am green with envy,” ‘now’ emphasizes the current experience of envy. Time and sequencing adverbs, such as ‘first,’ ‘then,’ and ‘after that,’ are essential in arranging discourse segments. They establish temporal relationships between clauses and sentences. These adverbs aid in sequencing events and maintaining a cohesive flow. Understanding the proper usage and positioning of time and sequencing adverbs is vital for effective communication and conveying the temporal aspect of experiences.

LINKING ADVERBS / SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Linking adverbs, also known as conjunctive adverbs, are used to connect ideas between two independent clauses or sentences. They help to show the relationship between these ideas. Here’s how the adverbs ‘also’, ‘however’ and the conjunction ‘so’ function in this capacity: Also: This adverb is used to add information or express agreement with the previous …

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ANOTHER

‘Another‘ is listed at A2 in the English Vocabulary Profile as a determiner or pronoun, with the meanings: one more person or thing, or an additional amount a different person or thing of the same type In the English Grammar Profile at B1, there are many points covering the use of ‘another’.  Considering that they …

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(time conjunction) + past perfect continuous

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 67 in the category of PAST is defined as: past perfect continuous after a time conjunction to give background information. For example: This was just a few months after Ebola had been terrifying the world. listen 1 AFTER IT HAD BEEN SITTING 46   WOAI She and her stepfather restored the bike themselves after it had …

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After + having | being + PAST PARTICIPLE

An in-depth explanation of the grammar structure ‘after being pp’ and ‘after having pp’. ‘after’ is a preposition used before a complement ‘verb-ing’ clause. For example: “After being told these stories, I started thinking” and “I moved back to India after having spent six years in the US”. In the English Grammar Profile, this structure is defined as a non-finite subordinate clause with ‘after’ + ‘having/being’ + ‘-ed’ form, before a main clause, to refer to past time.