after

time and sequencing adverbs

‘now’ is an adverb that refers to the timing of an event.  For example: A boss like that? Now I am green with envy. listen There are a few overlapping points in the category of ADVERBS as modifiers at A2 in the English Grammar Profile. Point 25: SEQUENCING: a limited range of adverbs and adverb phrases (‘first’, ‘then’, ‘after that’) …

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before | after + VERBing

In the English Grammar Profile, B1 point 61 in the category of CLAUSES is defined as: non-finite subordinate clause with ‘before’ and ‘after’ + ‘-ing’, before or after a main clause, to refer to time. Another way to say this is: ‘after + gerund’ or ‘before + gerund’ Also, note that this point will clash with …

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LINKING ADVERBS / SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Point 19 in A2 ADVERBS as modifiers is defined as: LINKING limited range of adverbs (‘also’, ‘so’, ‘however’) to show a relationship between two clauses or sentences. The EGP examples: I_PPIS1 also_RR bought_VVD ,_, so_CS I_PPIS1 decided_VVD However_RR ,_, the_AT clothes_NN2 were_VBDR cheap_JJ ._. Point in 2 A2 DISCOURSE MARKERS is: ‘so‘ to summarise, usually …

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simple prepositions (range)

When it comes to single word grammar points such as single-word prepositions, the English Vocabulary Profile is much better at explaining range than the English Grammar Profile.  For that reason, this post will only cover the prepositions appearing in the EGP examples. A1 is defined: prepositional phrases with a preposition and a noun phrase. limited …

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(time conjunction) + past perfect continuous

In the English Grammar Profile, B2 point 67 in the category of PAST is defined as: past perfect continuous after a time conjunction to give background information. For example: This was just a few months after Ebola had been terrifying the world. listen 1 AFTER IT HAD BEEN SITTING 46   WOAI She and her stepfather restored the bike themselves after it had …

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After + having | being + PAST PARTICIPLE

Let’s explain some examples of the grammar structure: ‘after being pp‘ and ‘after having pp‘: After being told these stories, I started thinking.                         (psychic-experiences.com) I moved back to India after having spent six years in the US.  (indix.com) Firstly, ‘after’ is a preposition before a complement ‘verb-ing’ clause.  For example, …

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